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    2017年中考英语语法专题详解九:中考英语语法考点专题精讲精练

    分类:简历格式 时间:2018-10-20 本文已影响
    中考网权威发布2017年中考英语语法专题详解九,更多2017年中考英语语法专题详解九相关信息请访问中考网。

      专题九 被动语态

      动词语态分为两大类:主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态:主语是动作的执行者。 被动语态:主语是动作的承受者。动作的执行者由by连接的短语表示,常译为“被、由”。

      对于英语的被动语态,我们可以以下五个方面来掌握。

      一、主语与谓语动词的逻辑关系 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词动作的承受者或对象。 如:Computers are widely used in our work and daily life. 电脑在我们的工作和日常生活中广泛应用。(computers就是use的对象或承受者)

      二、表示被动语态的形式 (1)基本形式:主语 + be + vt.的过去分词 + (by + sb.) This song is often sung by children at school. 这首歌经常在学校被孩子们唱。

    常见被动语态的时态:

    ①一般现在时:am/is/are+ vt.的过去分词;     

    ②一般过去时:was / were + vt.的过去分词;

    ③一般将来时:will / shall / be going to + be + vt.的过去分词;

    ④现在完成时:have / has + been + vt.的过去分词;

    ⑤过去完成时:had + been + vt.的过去分词;

    ⑥现在进行时:am/is/are + being + vt.的过去分词;

    ⑦过去进行时:was / were + being + vt.的过去分词            

    ⑧过去将来时:would + be + vt.的过去分词

    注意:被动语态不用于将来进行时及完成进行时。

      (2)其他形式: (选学)

      ①主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by +. sb.)+宾语/ 介词 + 宾语

      A. 主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 宾语/to +宾语 I was shown his gold medal there. 在那里他给我看了他的金牌。 His gold medal was shown to me. 他的金牌给我看了。 能用于这一句型的常见动词有bring,give,hand,lend,offer,pass,post,send,show,teach,tell,throw,write等。

      B. 主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 宾语 /for +宾语 I was bought a new dictionary (by my father). 我父亲给我买了一本新字典。 A new dictionary was bought for me (by my father). 我父亲给我买了一本新字典。 能用于这一句型的常见动词有buy,call,cook,do,get,make,save等。

      ②主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 主语的补足语 Jim was made chairman at the meeting. Jim在会上被推选为主席。 Li Lei was seen to break the glass this moming. 李雷今天上午被人看到打碎了那块玻璃。 能用于这一句型的常见动词有feel,hear,make,observe,see,watch等。特别注意的是,在主动语态中,不定式做宾语的补足语,不定式前面的小品词to必须省略,而在被动语态中,不定式做主语的补足语,不定式的小品词to必须补上。

      ③主语 +情态动词(can/could/may/might/must/should/ought to)+ be + 动词的过去分词 + (by + sb.) Water can be turned into ice. 水能转变成冰。 Your essay should be rewritten again. 你的论文应该还重新修改一遍。

      ④主语 +be + 短语动词的过去分词 + (by + sb.) His words should be paid much attention to. 应该多注意他的话。 The children in China are taken good care of now. 现在中国的孩子被照料得很好。 注意:动词后面的介词或副词不能省略。

      ⑤形式主语(It) +be + vt.的过去分词 +主语从句 It is reported that our team has won the game again. 据报道,我们队又赢了比赛。 能用于这一句型的常见动词有believe,expect,know,report,say,suppose,think等。这一句型也可变为: 主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词+不定式短语 The Mars is believed to have no life on it. 火星被确认无生命迹象。 Our team is reported to have won the game again. 据报道,我们队又赢了比赛。

      三、被动语态的用法

      被动语态往往表示一种客观的事实,有时语气比较生硬,没有商量的余地,从而令人难以接受,因此,切不可随便使用。在能用主动语态表示时,尽量使用主动语态,只有在下面的情况中才使用被动语态。

      ①说不出动作的执行者或没有必要说出动作的执行者; 如:The classroom had been cleaned when I got there.

      当我到达教室的时候,教室已经被人打扫过了。

      (教室究竟是谁打扫的,说话者并不知道)

      ②为了突出或强调动作的承受者或对象;如:Homework must be finished before school is over.

      作业必须在放学之前做完。(强调 Homework)

      ③为了修辞的需要,使句子间的联系更紧密。如: I have a new motorbike. It was given to me by my father yesterday as my birthday present. 我有一台新摩托车。它是昨天我父亲买给我作为生日礼物的。(显然,It指代 the new bike就与上文的a new motorbike紧密相连)

      四、不能使用被动语态的情况

      (1)不及物动词没有被动形式。特别要注意汉语中带名词或代词做宾语的动词,如belong,die,happen,occur,take place等不及物动词。 如:A terrible traffic accident happened on the road yesterday. (昨天在公路上发生了一起可怕的交通事故。)就不能改写为:A terrible traffic accident is happened on the road yesterday.

      (2)一些静态的及物动词也不能用于被动语态。如agree with,fit,have,hold,own,suit等。 如:I don’t agree with Jack. (我不同意Jack的观点。)就不能改写为:Jack isn " t agreed with.

      五、主动形式表被动意义如:The pen writes well. 这支笔很好写。 The food tastes good. 这些食物尝起来味道很好。

      His house is comfortable to live in. 他的房子住起来很舒服。

      实战演练(2×50) 计分:

      1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year?

      A. Did ; build B. Was ; built C. Is; built

      2.An accident ____ on this road last week.

      A. was happened B. has happened C.happened

      3. --- This kind of rice tastes nice. Do you know where it is grown?

      --- Yes, it _______ in Southeast China.

      A. was grew B. is grown C. is growing

      4.So far, the moon ____ by man already.

      A. is visited B. has been visited C. was visited

      5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week.

      A. is given B. has been given C. will be given

      6.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now.

      A. are doing B. are being done C. will be done

      7.The doctor _____ for yet.

      A. isn"t sent B. wasn"t sent C. hasn"t been sent

      8. ---When ___ this kind of computer ______?

      ---Last year.

      A. was; made B. did; make C .are; made

      9.Who _____ this book _____?

      A. did; write B. was; written by C. is; written

      10.Mary ____ show me her new dictionary.

      A. has asked to B. was asked to C. is asked

      11.A story _____ by Granny yesterday.

      A. was told to us B. was told us C. is told us

      12.The monkey was seen _____ off the tree.

      A. jumped B. jumps C. to jump

      13.Older people ____ well.

      A. must be looked after B. looks after C. must look after

      14.Our teacher ______ carefully.

      A. should be listened B. should be listened to C. are listened

      15. In some part of the world, tea _______ with milk and sugar.

      A. is served B. serves C. served

      16. --- Did you win the basketball game?

      --- Bad luck. Our team _______ in the final one.

      A. won B. was won C. was beaten

      17. Do you think that the bridge ______ in a year?

      A. would be completed B. will be completed C. is completed

      18. Great changes _______ in China since 1949.

      A. have taken place B. have been taken place C. took place

      19. ---Why does Ling Ling look so unhappy?

      ---She has _______ by her classmates.

      A. laughed B. been laughed C. been laughed at

      20. Doctors _______ in every part of the world.

      A. need B. are needing C. are needed

      21. This painting _______ to a museum in New York in 1977.

      A. sells B. sold C. was sold

      22. The television _______. It doesn’t work now.

      A. must repair B. must be repaired C. has repaired

      23. --- Do you think that the classroom _______ every day?

      --- Yes, I think so.

      A. should clean B. should be cleaning C. should be cleaned

      24. I believe that those mountains _______ with trees in a few years’ time.

      A. are covered B. will be covered C. will cover

      25. It is said that about 400 cars _______ in the factory next month.

      A. will produce B. are produced C. will be produced

      26. I wasn’t at home yesterday. I _______ to help with the harvest on the farm.

      A. was asked B.was asking C. asked

      27. ---Are you free this afternoon?

      ---No. I’ll have an English composition _______ this afternoon.

      A. to write B. wrote C. to be written

      28. --- Where are the boys?

      --- Oh, they _______ basketball on the playground just now.

      A. were seen play B. were seen to play C. had seen play

      29. --- Can you sing this English song?

      --- Of course I can. It _______ often _______ by children.

      A. is; sang B.was ; sang C.is ; sung

      30. ---What did Miss Zhang say to you just now?

      ---She said that all the books should ___ to the library on time.

      A. are returned B. return C. be returned

      31. When and where to build the new factory _______ yet.

      A. is not decided B. have not been decided C. has not been decided

      32. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______. He always works hard.

      A. learn B. to learn C. learned

      33. A football match _______ in our school next Monday.

      A. will hold B. will be held C. is going to hold

      34. ----What’s happened to Joe?

      ---- ________ to a hospital.

      A. He’s taken B. He’s been taken C. He’ll be taken

      35.--- Did you go to the party yesterday?

      ---- No, I ________.

      A. wasn’t invited B. was invited C. didn’t invite

      36. Today the forests have almost gone. People must ______ down too many trees.

      A. stop from cutting B. stop to cut C. be stopped from cutting

      37 .He was seen ________ something from the shop.

      A. steal B. to steal C. to be stolen

      38. One of the club activties ________ by Mr Smith.

      A. is holding B. are held C. is held

      39. This kind of medicine ________ in a dry and cool place.

      A. must keep B. kept C. must be kept

      40. The dog _________ an hour ago.

      A.died B.has died C.has been dead

      41. ---Mary, you ____ on the phone.

      --- Thank you, Mom.

      A. are wanted B. will be wanted C. have wanted

      42. This book ________ well in the shop.

      A. sells B. is selling C. is sold

      43.The windows__________ after school is over.

      A.usually closed B.are usually closed C.are usually closing

      44.They sat at the table until all the food __________ .

      A.was eating B.was eaten C.were eaten

      45.I don’t know the restaurant, but it ___________to be quite a good one.

      A.is said B.is told C.is spoken

      46. The old man was quite weak after the accident, so he _______.

      A. must be taken care B. must take care of C. must be looked after

      47. ----I feel very happy that I __________ to be the host.

      ----Congratulations.

      A. choose B. am chsoen C. was chosen

      48.Trees and grass __________ every year to protect our environment.

      A.is planted B.are planted C.have planted

      49.English _________in Canada, Australia and New Zealand as well as America.

      A.speaks B.is speaking C.is spoken

      50. ---Look at the sign on the wall.

      --- Oh, parking _______ here.

      A. doesn’t allow B.isn’t allowed C. wasn’t allowed

      参考答案

      1-5BCBBC 6-10BCABB 11-15ACABA 16-20CBACC 21-25CBCBC

      26-30AABCC 31-35CBBBA 36-40CBCCA 41-45AABBA 46-50CCBCB

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